Xylocarpus moluccensis (Lam.) M.Roem.

Etymology Genus Woody fruit
Species Likely the Maluku Islands, also known as Moluccas in Indonesia
Family Meliaceae
Synonyms Carapa moluccensis Lam.
Common Names Mangrove Cedar, Nyireh Batu, Mangrove Cannonball
Status Native: Endangered
Form Tree
Native Distribution Indian to Southeast Asia and Northern Australia


Xylocarpus moluccensis is a mangrove tree growing up to 30m tall. Its compound leaves are opposite arranged, with each leaflet being oval to egg-shaped, and having tapering tips. The roots have buttresses and also spreading pneumatophores.

Another congener, Xylocarpus granatum, that is found in the same habitat, looks similar, but has flaking bark and leaflets that have blunt tips.

Interesting Facts:

Wood from the Nyireh Batu is used to make houses, boats, firewood and small tool handles like the Indonesian dagger, the Kris (Giesen et al., 2006). Traditional medicinal treatment include for stomachaches (seeds) and intestinal problems (bark tannin).

A stand of Nyireh batu Pasir Ris Mangroves (2020).

Opposite arranged leaflets.

Fissured bark.




Giesen W, Wulffraat S, Zieren M &  Scholten L (2006) Mangrove guidebook for Southeast Asia. RAP Publication 2006/07. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific and Wetlands International. Bangkok. 769 pp.

Author: Jake
Posted: 2020-04-04 / Modified: 2020-04-07